However, it is important to note that the effect can differ with direction from the well because of anisotropy in aquifer permeability (Figure 6.3). Hard rock. Their report called for the development of a strategy to integrate the technical, institutional, and social problems related to site management and the establishment of a program to address those problems. However, exposure to particulate matter can also lead to increased asthma, as documented by increased visits to emergency rooms, and even to death from heart or lung disease (Pope et al., 2009; Anenberg et al., 2010). The last uranium mine in the area was closed in 2001. Dewatering effects. Much is already known about the environmental impacts of mining, both on-site and off-site, and that body of information provides a basis for this chapter. Management of waste rock piles at uranium mines has evolved from the realization that all waste rock does not behave the same geochemically. In this section the potential effects of modern uranium mining practices on groundwater quantity and quality are discussed. SOURCE: AREVA Resources Canada Inc. many thousands of years (Hebel et al., 1978). Although 90-95 percent of the uranium in the ore is extracted during processing (thus reducing uranium concentrations by at least an order of magnitude), most of the uranium decay products (e.g., 230Th, 226Ra, 222Rn), which may comprise the majority of the total radioactivity of the ore, stay in the tailings (Hebel et al., 1978, Van Metre and Gray, 1992). Additionally, there were long-term changes to the microbial community (bacterial and fungal) of stockpiled soils that altered their function when used to restore mine sites relative to premining conditions or unmined areas (Johnson et al., 1991; Williamson and Johnson, 1991). This suggests that reclaimed soils have degraded water capacity for long periods. Sediment and water discharged off-site could contain a wide variety of ecologically hazardous materials, depending on the chemical composition of the ores being mined. To ensure that the monitoring plan and site conceptual and numerical models are appropriate and reflect the latest scientific understanding, the monitoring plan and site models should be reviewed annually by an independent group of qualified experts. Stakeholders should consider technical and social issues, in addition to a broad range of scenarios, to reinforce the long-term robustness of existing safety systems. Off-site transport of particulate matter causes nuisance effects, such as impaired visibility and dust accumulation on cars and houses. • Significant potential environmental risks are associated with extreme natural events and failures in management practices. [email protected]Tel. Temporary storage of mill tailings can pose greater short-term environmental risks, unless these facilities are also designed and constructed to contain the waste and treat all effluent under extreme climatic variability. Thus, mining and restoration can be completed continuously and progressively throughout the life of a mine. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (i.e., groundwater recharge).Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences (e.g. exposure. Leakage of lower pH, oxygenated water from an unconfined upper aquifer into higher pH anoxic water in a lower confined aquifer through multiaquifer wells has been implicated as the primary cause for elevated uranium concentrations in a public supply well in York, Nebraska (Clark et al., 2008; Landon et al., 2008). 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