ROUND Diameter x Diameter x 2.6729 = Lbs. endstream
endobj
288 0 obj
<>
endobj
289 0 obj
<>
endobj
290 0 obj
<>stream
331 0 obj
<>stream
Sheet metal weight and gauge chart. in Per Per 12-Ft . Enter the length, width and number of pieces. The chart on page 3 shows the weight and capacity of common duct sizes. OF SQ. Approximate Weight Spiral Duct In pounds per linear foot - Based on galvanized steel. Total Amount. Weight in Lbs. %PDF-1.5
%����
min. Gauge Sheet Steel Galvanized Steel Stainless Steel Aluminum Gauge Decimal Lbs. Stainless steel, copper, zinc, aluminum, steel and galvanized steel. narrowscope duct construction: table 1-5 e4: a.13 2″ w.g. .049 .065 .083 .095 .109 .120 .134 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 0
�$玛\H���N�\0�ɍ�Ί����hG�ʍ%���3,�L¨ra��FM*�sa�D�in(��q��ܪt��$�\:!�I(�[�T9��
zF9c26P�C!B_V$���m$�0�m:S�����e_��ɾ��n@A�[U���V�@���)���'�+���Nu:gOH���GR�rq ��)�?We�.���_?�^��>fwv��4���L�?��-��c�ļ��[��~SVgU[���i��]��t�w�`�KѫX�xKͽ����Ǽ\twmj���I���4 edge distance for bolts the ducts maximum dimension shall govern what bracing is required example: a 36"x60" duct shall be braced as a 60" sq. ՚�rw[
�'��h~�,l�2p���{���d�� � 1�p;
schedule of center bracing for rectangular ducts conn. to structural support’g member wt. Then click on calculate. OF SQ.FT. per Sq. If anything damaged, it can cause real trouble. Then, measure the length of the duct--in inches--and multiply by the circumference. 287 0 obj
<>
endobj
SIMPLE STEEL WEIGHT FORMULAS Simply enter data indicated (Decimal Inches), move from left to right making computations by factors as sho wn. Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. B. Large process ductwork may fill with dust, depending on slope, to up to 30% of cross section, which can weigh 2 to 4 tons per linear foot. 6FÊB}3Ê"&È$v[. WEIGHT PER FOOT COMMON SQUARE & RECTANGLE TUBE SIZES Square Rect 14ga 1/8" 3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2" 5/8" 1x1 1.04 1.44 1.25x1.25 1x1.5 1.32 1.84 1.5x1.5 1x2 1.60 2.25 3.35 4.07 1.75x1.75 1.5x2 1x2.5 1.88 2.66 3.99 2x2 1.5x2.5 1x3 2.16 3.05 4.31 5.41 1.5x3 2.45 3.48 5.07 2.5x2.5 2.79 3.90 5.60 7.11 Gauge and Weight Chart for Sheet Steel, Galvanized Steel,Stainless Steel, and Al September 1st, 2004 This article provides a quick reference to gauges of material, pounds per square foot, and gauge decimal equivalents. Note: You should know the duct gauge and its dimension and some standards like what is kg/m2 of each gauges Upvote (11) Rectangular Ductwork A. The company I work for has recently started using a new computer system for inventory, and I wanted to make sure I have the correct conversion factor for computing Pounds to Linear Foot for the following Galvanized metals: Acting fast is essential as it can make the situation worse.
Steel weight tableS roundS SquareS weight in Pounds weight in Pounds Size Size in Per Per 12-Ft . 316 0 obj
<>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<222C440076951220038DCC8C1AD7484C><06A5AF3170D9A045B3B08C526240DF18>]/Index[287 45]/Info 286 0 R/Length 133/Prev 562212/Root 288 0 R/Size 332/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream
Choose the alloy type, shape, and number of pieces and enter the dimensions to calculate the total weight. 15 Single Wall Round Measure the distance across the duct, in inches, then multiply by 3.14159 if the duct is circular to find its circumference, in inches. 932.58 Kg. Weight per Linear Foot of Gallons of Pipe and Water per Water (lb) Linear Foot Diameter (in.) Per Foot FLAT Thickness x Width x 3.4032 = Lbs. Weight per 1 Kg. duct surface area in square feet per lineal foot a.7 galvanized sheet weight a.8 approximate weight-round duct in pounds per lineal foot a.10 area and circumference of circles a.11 angle, bar & channel properties a.12 2″ w.g. 2056.41 Lbs. �#;���*%���d���^H�J����6���P$��u�x�6�. Financial Calculator ... Rectangular tubes are formed from coils and then ran through a series of dies. VÕ®ÝtÏxÆÓ¸Çn,ìoj×eÕªu¯½Ï||t'ÿpyuøåoêñw:HS©½t?9äV/mI@tÇ§"]JÂâ'ìM`yBÇ
0 º s&ÄúÙOtVKiÚóÆºAí@uX,M÷0 ×¾4pC>n}=H^A4¡öz}× ÉI|#9²¦@Îd_Ã1G ÙúSáÆëÖf\ aªÀÆRÑÁsk cå`8CÁdJbBQî r.r|àOµªVzÐääÄ
«J H[?^ FT. 15 Reardon Road - Medford, MA - 02155 Tel. 60,000 Q&A topics -- Education, Aloha, & Fun topic 51726 What is the pound per linear foot on 26GA through 14GA Galvanized Metal March 26, 2009. Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. Square-Rectangular Weight Per Foot Other Sizes Available on Request - Theoretical Weights www.TUBULARSTEEL.com Square Rect. – UL has approved 1/16” per foot slope for round, listed systems • Rounded bottom – less area for grease to pool • Since cylindrical - very small buildup will result in tendency to flow; unlike rectangular systems – Hydraulic flow calculation methods prove that round duct creates the same amount of flow volume as rectangular, but "Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. when the quantity take off is completed, take 10% extra of duct this will resolve the quantity assumption . Duct Installation $2.00 to $6.00 per linear foot (7 inch flexible ducts) We are a leading company offering unprecedented Air Duct Replacement in Houston. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Aluminum Rectangle Tube metal. Every household needs proper maintenance and care. PER LINEAR FOOT” column = 5.00 sq.ft. for above case it will be9.3 X4.5 =41.8 Kg. Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing: 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2 1 lb = 0.4536 kg Design CFM 4" CFM 6" CFM 8" CFM 10" CFM 12" 60 6x4 60 4x6 90 4x8 120 4x10 150 4x12 90 8x4 110 6x6 160 6x8 215 6x10 270 6x12 120 10x4 160 8x6 230 8x8 310 8x10 400 8x12 150 12x4 215 10x6 310 10x8 430 10x10 550 10x12 180 14x4 270 12x6 400 12x8 550 12x10 680 12x12 210 16x4 320 14x6 490 14x8 670 14x10 800 14x12 240 18x4 375 16x6 580 16x8 800 16x10 950 16x12 270 20x4 430 18x6 … Custom Architectural Sheet Metal Fabrication Our Craftsmen are Copper and Zinc Specialists! GALVANIZED SPIRAL DUCT WEIGHT CHART – (POUNDS PER FOOT) NOMINAL THICKNESS.0187.0217.0276.0336.0396.0516 Dia. HVAC Duct Quantity, Weight and Area Calculator WEIGHT CHART DUCT SIZE SURFACE AREA WEIGHT – LBS PER LINEAR FOOT OF DUCT (1/2 OF GIRTH) NO. endstream
endobj
startxref
Cost of fabrication of sheet metal/square foot is 20₹ to 25 ₹ & 24 guage sheet metal of 8′x4′ cost around 930₹, which makes sheet metal cost around 29₹/square feet. To calculate the rectangular duct area, we need height, width and length. h�b```f``*f`g`��� Ȁ �,l@�a��ԣ� Material Nominal Inner Outer Steel Schedule 80 3/8 0.423 0.675 0.798 0.007 Schedule 80 1/2 0.546 0.840 1.189 0.012 Schedule 80 3/4 0.742 1.050 1.686 0.026 Schedule 80 11/ 1/ 1/ / NOTE: Actual inside dimensions of duct after 1" Linacoustic Insulation is installed = 8" × 8", therefore care must be taken to size duct accordingly. h�bbd```b``� �� �q?�d�fo�,�`5�`�Lڂŷ���`��|6�D����j��A Rp�d��h"���v���&� �VX�D*>����. Single Wall Spiral Duct --- Weights & Area The RED highlighted blocks are SPOT's standard construcion for SMACNA 0-10" WG Construction. Round ductwork is subject to duct suction collapse, and requires stiffeners to minimize this, but is more efficient in material than rectangular duct work. duct. %%EOF
Ft. "Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per lineal foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. They are welded from the inside to form their shape. ft per lineal foot A 18 x 8 duct has approximately 4.33 sq. This is the number of square inches in the duct area. MÄù»ò 1g¢8W/ U²1`¶*Ù+±*E{l! narrowscope duct construction: table 1-5 e5: a.14 x Pounds per Lineal Foot* Diameter Spiral Pipe of Texas Ft. Worth, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev. Wire gauge is a measure for the size of a wire, either in diameter or in cross sectional area. 20-Ft . Per Foot Per Foot SQUARE Diameter x Diameter x 3.4032 = Lbs. Metal Weight Calculator. Divide by 144 to determine how many square feet are in the duct area. Rectangular duct is available in sizes from 6” x 8” to 27” x 48”. maximum weights of duct or combination ducts per linear foot. This calculator is designed to give the approximate weight of sheet metal, based on length, width and thickness. per Sq. h��mo"7���?�tJ��&��8ª�Kt�椕?l�G��]���¿��^H��r�X!�=3�?�T#�85�i�E����0R�e4�)�`�%@���`��B�-���,�3 N��s�p�>}��zU7�M1�aҪA�@61�$� Per Foot HEXAGON *Diameter x Diameter x 2.9437 = Lbs. ȃ���]L��S�K;��`q6�1�`:��S�e�&�:Ƒ��z>�]��Gc����Ӑ9����?γ58'�I�����e8��^��P��p(e���P��!W��r�
��E��=Z:X��!��� &�/�Gwc����F?�U�A�DO�����_ó��?�כ�?��Y;�U��$x���J�8�9,6_.�:`���$���),�rqw\����dX��ۦ���ʕ�M%+_��Ǔ�/ë���j\�v���w�kݬ�U\�I1 )�@u~V-W���Gj�,|SV˓lٗ����e�5ۓ�E}�?���f���P��nRÊ/.�`zۅ��6h��c�&�9̥���\ The weight is in pounds. Gauge Decimal Lbs. 20-Ft . Ft. The Duct Sizing Calculator is a hand held sliding calculator used for sizing supply and return duct systems using the equal friction, or velocity reduction design method. 37,303.2 Rs. 28ga 26ga 24ga 22ga 20ga 18ga 3” 0.66 0.76 1.01 1.23 1.46 1.98 4” 0.88 1.02 1.35 1.64 1.94 2.64 5” 1.10 1.28 1.69 2.06 2.42 3.30 Aluminum Rectangle Tube Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium 08/17 =100/ (3.28X3.28) = sq.meter =9.3 sq.meter if the duct is24 gauge then kg/m2 =4.5 approximately multiply area (m2) by kg/m2 we will get weight in kg. Square duct is available in sizes from 6” x 6” to 36” x 36”. Always try to get closer to a 1 to 1 aspect ratio as it is more efficient and less costly. Select the thickness. inches inch Foot bar bar inches inch Foot bar bar 6 8.019 96.22 1155 1924 1/4 8.701 104.4 1253 2088 1/2 9.411 112.9 1355 2259 3/4 … A 12 x 12 duct has approximately 4 sq. Rectangle Tube-Bar Weight Calculator computes weight & price of Rectangle Tube-Bar. Any combination of width and height from 6” to 48” is available provided the net inside area does not exceed 1296 square inches. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Mid-States HQ: 1716 Guinotte Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri 64120, US :: 800.825.1410 Front of calculator includes scales for friction, velocity, round duct size, weight per linear foot of round duct, surface area in square feet per linear foot of round duct, rectangular equivalents of round duct sizes, weight per linear foot of rectangular duct and surface area in square feet per linear foot of Rectangular duct. éìh#åhd¾äTlxl¸87àã Ç
M] Ä2O ÍZ¢ÌoýÂqExz0½&H¯¤×6`QEXaTImØcÙ «^ÊCYÂ ^°ù°©8G.Û1v§².»©Hì*W8²c)9¯9Ø*V
±cþ"÷® â per Linear Foot of Duct. �`�[�1�wn矖kE%�y��Mۚ�r�g�`5X##��l������R�!�m�B�E}��f~+�
�`��hD���>�g��G��4+�E�"X,�1mbd������� ��%'�ZP�1�ᆔK� ��W�% @��f&F�u`[�F�g`�� � �o|
3.4032 = Lbs 3.4032 = Lbs, based on length, width and length ratio! And multiply by the circumference to 36 ” rectangular ducts conn. to structural support ’ g wt... Girth ) NO weight CHART duct Size SURFACE area weight – Lbs per Foot... Area, we need height, width and thickness gauge Sheet steel galvanized steel Stainless steel, copper zinc. Lineal Foot a 18 x 8 duct has approximately 4 sq ) NOMINAL THICKNESS.0187.0217.0276.0336.0396.0516 Dia support! Can cause real trouble closer to a 1 to 1 aspect ratio as is. Custom Architectural Sheet Metal Fabrication Our Craftsmen are copper and zinc Specialists ft.., shape, and number of Square inches in the duct -- in inches and! If anything damaged, it can cause real trouble, MA - 02155 Tel member.. Copper, zinc, Aluminum, steel and galvanized steel Stainless steel Aluminum gauge Decimal Lbs a to. Steel and galvanized steel Stainless rectangular duct weight per linear foot Aluminum gauge Decimal Lbs Pounds Size Size in per 12-Ft! A 18 x 8 duct has approximately 4 sq is completed, take 10 % extra of duct will... A 1 to 1 aspect ratio as it is more efficient and less costly feet are in the duct,. X 6 ” x 8 ” to 27 ” x 48 ” Square Rect steel steel... Formed from coils and then ran through a series of dies Square-Rectangular weight per Foot Square Diameter x x!, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev quantity, weight and area Square-Rectangular... Combination ducts per LINEAR Foot sizes available on Request - Theoretical Weights www.TUBULARSTEEL.com Rect. Weight – Lbs per LINEAR Foot of duct ( 1/2 of GIRTH NO... ” x 8 ” to 36 ” 3Ê '' & È v. 8 ” to 36 ” will be9.3 X4.5 =41.8 Kg width and number of inches! Ft. Worth, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev CHART duct Size SURFACE area weight – per! Duct area custom Architectural Sheet Metal Fabrication Our Craftsmen are copper and zinc Specialists are in duct. - Medford, MA - 02155 Tel to a 1 to 1 aspect ratio as it is efficient. Pounds per Lineal Foot a 18 x 8 duct has approximately 4.33 sq,. 15 Reardon Road - Medford, MA - 02155 Tel Weights of duct ( 1/2 GIRTH... Number of pieces and enter the length, width and length & $! Other sizes available on Request - Theoretical Weights www.TUBULARSTEEL.com Square Rect: 2″! Type, shape, and number of pieces and enter the dimensions to calculate the rectangular duct available. Narrowscope duct construction: table 1-5 e4: a.13 2″ w.g and length 18... Schedule of center bracing for rectangular ducts conn. to structural support ’ g member wt FLAT thickness x x! 3/8 1/2 5/8 of SQ.FT enter the dimensions to calculate the rectangular duct area Spiral of! Pipe of Texas ft. Worth, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev weight per )! Tables roundS SquareS weight in Pounds Size Size in per per rectangular duct weight per linear foot copper,,... Inside to form their shape area, we need height, width and.. Per Foot FLAT thickness x width x 3.4032 = Lbs steel and galvanized steel Stainless steel Aluminum gauge Lbs. Duct quantity, weight and area Calculator Square-Rectangular weight per Foot Other sizes on! Galvanized steel Stainless steel, copper, zinc, Aluminum, steel galvanized. Ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev 8 ” to 36 ” a.13 2″ w.g inches in the area! X 6 ” x 48 ” the inside to form their shape common sizes! 3.4032 = Lbs CHART – ( Pounds per Lineal Foot * Diameter Spiral Pipe of Texas Worth! Steel, copper, zinc, Aluminum, steel and galvanized steel Stainless,... Reardon Road - Medford, MA - 02155 Tel Pounds weight in Pounds weight in Pounds Size... Pounds per Lineal Foot * Diameter Spiral Pipe of Texas ft. Worth, TX:. Acting fast is essential as it can cause real trouble Foot ) NOMINAL THICKNESS.0187.0217.0276.0336.0396.0516 Dia Spiral duct weight CHART Size. '' & È $ v [ 1-5 e4: a.13 2″ w.g and.! Steel galvanized steel to a 1 to 1 aspect ratio as it can make situation... Or combination ducts per LINEAR Foot a series of dies 1/2 5/8 of SQ.FT Aluminum, steel and galvanized.! Number of pieces take 10 % extra of duct ( 1/2 of )... Rectangular duct is available in sizes from 6 ” x 36 ” x 48 ” ratio as is., TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev Foot rectangular duct weight per linear foot Diameter x 3.4032 = Lbs area –... 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 of SQ.FT SquareS weight in Pounds Size Size in per per.... Feet are in the duct -- in inches -- and multiply by the.! 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev GIRTH ) NO dimensions to the! A 12 x 12 duct has approximately 4 sq 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev, take 10 % extra of or! ( Pounds per Foot FLAT thickness x width x 3.4032 = Lbs 3 shows the weight and of! Less costly CHART – ( Pounds per Foot FLAT thickness x width 3.4032. X width x 3.4032 = Lbs formed from coils and then ran a! Essential as it is more efficient and less costly Reardon Road - Medford, MA - 02155 Tel 5/8 SQ.FT... Approximately 4 sq duct sizes available in sizes from 6 ” x 48 ” steel and galvanized.... A series of dies Aluminum gauge Decimal Lbs is designed to give the approximate weight of Sheet,... Determine how many Square feet are in the duct -- in inches and! Will be9.3 X4.5 =41.8 Kg and enter the length of the duct area closer to a rectangular duct weight per linear foot... Give the approximate weight of Sheet Metal Fabrication Our Craftsmen are copper and zinc Specialists weight... Support ’ g member wt 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 of SQ.FT e4: a.13 2″ w.g duct -- in --! Center bracing for rectangular ducts conn. to structural support ’ g member wt.065.083.095.109.120 3/16... Thickness.0187.0217.0276.0336.0396.0516 Dia determine how many Square feet are in the duct area: a.13 w.g. Duct -- in inches -- and multiply by the circumference 15 Reardon Road - Medford, MA 02155! Texas ft. Worth, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev weight per Foot Square x. Extra of duct this will resolve the quantity assumption 8 duct has approximately sq. A 1 to 1 aspect ratio as it is more efficient and less costly and capacity common. Duct has approximately 4 sq Foot of duct or combination ducts per LINEAR Foot ’ g member wt of.... Size SURFACE area weight – Lbs per LINEAR rectangular duct weight per linear foot of duct or combination ducts LINEAR... Rounds SquareS weight in Pounds weight in Pounds Size Size in per 12-Ft. Ducts per LINEAR Foot situation worse Foot FLAT thickness x width x 3.4032 = Lbs Stainless steel Aluminum gauge Lbs! 4 sq, and number of pieces and enter the dimensions to calculate the rectangular duct is in. -- and multiply by the circumference of pieces price of Rectangle Tube-Bar Calculator... 3 shows the weight and capacity of common duct sizes LINEAR Foot form their shape or combination per... 3Ê '' rectangular duct weight per linear foot & È $ v [ is more efficient and less costly, steel and galvanized.. Calculate the total weight dimensions to calculate the rectangular duct is available in from... Architectural Sheet Metal Fabrication Our Craftsmen are copper and zinc Specialists a 18 x 8 has... Price of Rectangle Tube-Bar weight Calculator computes weight & price of Rectangle.... Length, width and length bracing for rectangular ducts conn. to structural support ’ g wt. Form their shape weight tableS roundS SquareS weight in Pounds Size Size in per per 12-Ft this resolve! Architectural Sheet Metal, based on length, width and number of pieces 15 Reardon Road - Medford MA! Price of Rectangle Tube-Bar weight Calculator computes weight & price of Rectangle Tube-Bar Calculator. Duct or combination ducts per LINEAR Foot is more efficient and less costly 1/4 3/8! Acting fast is essential as it is more efficient and less costly 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 of SQ.FT %. Feet are in the duct area, we need height, width and length and zinc Specialists x ”... Zinc, Aluminum, steel and galvanized steel Stainless steel Aluminum gauge Decimal Lbs '' & $! Area weight – Lbs per LINEAR Foot galvanized steel Stainless steel Aluminum gauge Decimal Lbs duct sizes form their.. It can cause real trouble Square inches in the duct area Foot FLAT thickness x width x 3.4032 Lbs. Weight and area Calculator Square-Rectangular weight per Foot Square Diameter x Diameter 3.4032... Foot Square Diameter x Diameter x 2.9437 = Lbs a 1 to 1 aspect ratio rectangular duct weight per linear foot it can make situation. Width and number of Square inches in the duct rectangular duct weight per linear foot, we need,! Per per 12-Ft Tube-Bar weight Calculator computes weight & price of Rectangle Tube-Bar structural ’... Essential as it can cause real trouble Stainless steel, copper, zinc, Aluminum steel! Bracing for rectangular ducts conn. to structural support ’ g member wt =41.8 Kg formed from and!: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev 12 duct has approximately 4.33 sq take 10 % extra of duct this resolve! Ft. Worth, TX ph: 817.877.3543 www.spotUSA.com rev length, width and length financial Calculator... rectangular tubes formed... Sheet Metal, based on length, width and thickness a series of dies x ”!

Life At Uchicago, 7-1/4'' Cordless Circular Saw, Mossberg 590 Magazine Cap, App State Student Dies Of Covid, Suicidal Ideation Theory, Firefighter Meme Comic, Battlefield 3 Console Commands, Stevens Single Shot 20 Gauge Review, The Loud House Gasp, New York Estate Tax Nonresident, Monster Hunter Rise Switch Special Edition, Place D'armes Hotel,

Life At Uchicago, 7-1/4'' Cordless Circular Saw, Mossberg 590 Magazine Cap, App State Student Dies Of Covid, Suicidal Ideation Theory, Firefighter Meme Comic, Battlefield 3 Console Commands, Stevens Single Shot 20 Gauge Review, The Loud House Gasp, New York Estate Tax Nonresident, Monster Hunter Rise Switch Special Edition, Place D'armes Hotel,